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Legacy of Enslavement

1865-1877

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Gov. Newsom apologizes for California’s history of violence against Native Americans, Los Angeles Times

https://apple.news/AJCuGKnBCTMWHnPfspn3VWA

PBS, The Truth Behind 40 Acres and a Mule

https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/the-truth-behind-40-acres-and-a-mule/

Ex-Slaves Did Not Receive Pensions, Did Not Have Economic Independence National Archives

https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2010/summer/slave-pension.html

Colored Conventions - Gold Chains: The Hidden History of Slavery in California | ACLU NorCal  (1865, first link)

https://www.aclunc.org/sites/goldchains/explore/colored-conventions.html

California, a "Free State" Sanctioned Slavery - California Historical Society

https://californiahistoricalsociety.org/blog/california-a-free-state-sanctioned-slavery/

Journal of Negro History:  Slavery in California

https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2713792.pdf

California’s Fugitive Slave Act

http://www.aclunc.org/docs/FINAL_California_Fugitive_Slave_Act.pdf

California’s First Governor, Peter Burnett

https://web.archive.org/web/20080523180440/http://www.californiagovernors.ca.gov/h/documents/inaugural_1.html

From the California Historical Society: California, a “Free State” Sanctioned Slavery

https://californiahistoricalsociety.org/blog/california-a-free-state-sanctioned-slavery/

The Freedman’s Story

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1866/02/the-freedmans-story/308737/

Vann Newkirk”:  Juneteenth

https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/06/juneteenth-celebration-police-brutality-justice/530898/

Frederick Douglass On Suffrage

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1867/01/an-appeal-to-congress-for-impartial-suffrage/306547/

Frederick Douglass on Reconstruction

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1866/12/reconstruction/304561/

Goldberg: Kevin McCarthy lauds the first Black member of the House. Here’s why that’s annoying

https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2020-12-11/joseph-rainey-first-black-representative-gop