Citing Sources by the Modern Language Association (MLA)
WORKS CITED (Print Sources)
Works Cited list of a research paper should be double spaced. For more detailed information or format examples for other types of sources, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Sixth Edition, 2003. The library keeps a copy at the Reserve Desk.
Book - Single Author
Angelou, Maya. The complete Collected Poems of May Angelou. New York: Random House, 1994.
Book - Multiple Authors
Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.
Note: If more than 3 authors, you may list the first author only and then type “et al” - meaning “and others.”
Book - Corporate/Organization Author
U. S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2002-2003 ed. Washington, DC: Bernan, 2002.
Book - Unknown or No Author
The HarperCollins World Atlas. New York: Scott, Foresman, 2001.
Williams, Michael W., ed. The African American Encyclopedia. 6 vols.
Chapter or Article in an Edited Book
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed. Maynard Mack, et al. 6th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 1992. 2179-2199.
General Encyclopedia - Unsigned Article
“Amendment.” The Encyclopedia Americana. 2000 ed.
General Encyclopedia - Signed Article
Murphy, Bruce Allen. “Civil Rights.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.
Journal Article - One Author Continous Pagination
Farmer, Kathleen U. “Biofeedback and Visualization for Peak Performance.” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 4 (1999):59- 64.
Journal Article – Multiple Author – Continuous Pagination
Scott, M. Janine, and Jesse Palmer. “Eight Principles for ‘Total Quality’ Schools.” Education 115 (1999): 139-43.
Journal Article – Each Issue Paged Separately:
Sellards, Suzanne, and Mary Etta Mills. “Administrative Issues for Use of Nurse Practitioners.” Journal of Nursing Administration 25.5 (1999): 64-70.
Note: 25 is the volume number and 5 is the issue number.
Norment, Lynn. “50 Years of Fashion and Beauty.” Ebony Aug. 1999: 115-18+.
Magazine Article - Unsigned
“Panther’s Passage.” People 18 May 1998: 70.
Newspaper Article – Daily
Weidner, David. “Scientists Have Some Success against Disease with Nicotine.” Winston-Salem Journal 28 Aug. 2000, city ed.: B1+.
Newspaper Article - Daily – No Author:
“Cambodian Orphans Use Internet to Reach Out.” Winston-Salem Journal 15 Jan. 2001, city ed.: A2.
Newspaper Article – Unsigned Editorial:
“No Golden Opportunity.” Editorial. The Wall Street Journal 4 Feb. 2002: A22.
WORKS CITED: Electronic Sources
Full-Text Journal Article Accessed through an Online Database:
Author. “Article title.” Journal title Vol #.Issue # (Year): n. pag. Title of database. Medium of publication consulted (Web). Date of access (day, month, and year)
Frus, Phyllis, and Stanley Corkin. "Willa Cather's "Pioneer" Novels and (Not New, Not Old) Historical Reading." College Literature 26. 2 (1999). Expanded Academic. Web.30 Nov. 2001.
Article from an Electronic Magazine on the World Wide Web:
Author. “Article title.” Magazine title Date of publication. Medium of publication consulted (Web) Date of access (day, month, and year).
Jeffries, Paul. “If You Don't Have a Job by Graduation.” Black Collegian Online Apr. 1998. Web. 9 Aug. 1999.
Full-Text Journal Article on CD-ROM:
Author. “Article title.” Journal title Vol. #.Issue # (Year): Page #. Publication medium--i.e., CD-ROM. Title of the database. Vendor name. Publication date.
Smitherman, Geneva. “The Chain Remain the Same: Communicative Practices in the Hip Hop Nation.” Journal of Black Studies 28 (1997): 3-25. CD-ROM. Periodical Abstracts-Research I. Proquest. 2002.
Author. Title of site if the work is independent; in roman type and quotations marks if the work is part of a larger work. Title of the overall Web site (italicized, if distinct from the web page cited). Name of organization or institution associated with site; if not available, use N.p. Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d. Medium of publication (Web). Date of access (day, month, and year)
Jackson, John. Salute to Pioneering Cartoonists of Color. Cartoonists. Web. 25 Feb. 1999.
CITATIONS WITH TEXT
Brief parenthetical citations are inserted within the text wherever you incorporate another’s words, facts, or ideas. Each parenthetical citation contains only enough information to enable the reader to find the corresponding fully documented source in the list of Works Cited. Usually the author’s last name and the page numbers referred to are enclosed in parentheses. But if the author has already been identified in the text, only the page numbers are enclosed in parentheses. (See the two examples below.)
This same point is made by others (Smith 152-64).
Smith makes this same point (152-64).
This guide was modified from a document at:
For other examples, ask for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (LB 2369.G53 2009) on
2-hr. reserve at the Circulation Desk and in the circulating collection.